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常见软件许可证导读

在软件开发中难免要用到其它人拥有版权的软件,没有几家公司能够从操作系统和驱动程序到浏览的所有网页上脚本全部都自主知识产权。一般来说,即使你拿到软件的一个副本,你仍然无权运行它,更不要说复制、出售、修改或研究它,只有版权持有人明确授予相应权限才行。权利与义务是对等的,授予通常也是有条件,只有你同意版权持有人的条件你才能使用软件,关于使用软件的权利与义务的协议称为许可证。要使用软件,必须仔细阅读并同意严格遵守许可证。幸运的是,众多自由软件和开源软件都使用少数几种许可证,因此我们有必要了解它们的条款,以免误堕法网。

MIT许可证

MIT许可证原来被用于X Windows,现在也常用于Web框架如JQuery和其它软件。

Copyright (c) <年份>, <版权持有人>

没有限制地与本软件打交道的权利在这里免费地授予任何获得本软件和有关文档副本的人
,包括无限使用、复制、修改、合并、发表、散布、再许可和或出售副本,并可授权备有
本软件的人这样做,只要满足以下条件:

上述版权告示和这权利告示必须包含于本软件的所有副本或后续部分。

本软件只提供本身,没有任何类型明示或暗示的保证,包括但不限于适销性、特定目的
的适应性和非违法性。没有情况下作者或版权持有人会为任何指控、损坏或其它责任负责,
不论是使用或交易本软件导致、产生或有关的合约行为、民事或其它。

可见MIT许可证相当宽松,只要保留版权声明就基本上可以随意用。如果对上述翻译不放心,可以再看原文:

Copyright (c) <YEAR>, <COPYRIGHT HOLDER>

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
"Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

BSD许可证

BSD许可证原来被用于BSD,现在使用颇为广泛。它形如:

Copyright (c) <年份>, <版权持有人>

不论修改过与否,只要满足以下条件,以源或二进制形式再发布或使用都是被允许的:

    (1) 源代码的再发布必须保留上面版权声明、这些条件和下面的免责声明。 

    (2) 二进制形式的再发布必须在文档和/或其它随发布提供的材料中重现
    上述上面版权声明、这些条件和下面的免责声明。
    
    (3) 在没有明确书面许可的情况下,作者的名称不能用于代言或推广衍生于这软件的产品。

作者仅提供本软件本身,不附带任何明示或暗示的保证, 包括但不限于暗示的适销性保证和
对特定用途的适应性。没有情况下作者要对任何直接、间接、意外、特殊、典型或后续的损失
(包括但不限于替代品或服务;可用性、数据或利润的损失;业务中断)负责,
不管怎样以任何方式使用本软件造成和在任何法律理论如合约、严格责任或民事
(包括过失或其它),即使已经被告知出现相关损失的可能性。

可见BSD许可证相当宽松,只要保留版权声明就基本上可以随意用(以二进制形式时在文档中)。另外一些BSD风格许可证稍为修改或增删这些条件,这时要对看清楚作者作出了哪些修改,例如:

  • 删去第三个条件,即容许狐假虎威。
  • 增加“所有提到这软件的功能和应用的推广材料必须带有如下声明: 本产品包含加州大学伯克利分校及其贡献者开发的软件”。这类条款可能导致与GPL不兼容,并且与第三个条件结合时基本上无法打广告。

如果对上述翻译不放心,可以再看原文:

Copyright (c) <YEAR>, <COPYRIGHT HOLDER>

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are
met:

    (1) Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer. 

    (2) Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in
    the documentation and/or other materials provided with the
    distribution.  
    
    (3)The name of the author may not be used to
    endorse or promote products derived from this software without
    specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR ``AS IS'' AND ANY EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT,
INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING
IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

Apache许可证

Apache许可证原来被用于Apache生态系统的众多软件,现在使用颇为广泛,如包括Android。它形如:

                                 Apache许可证
                           版本 2.0, 2004年1月
                        http://www.apache.org/licenses/

   使用、再生成和散布的条款和条件

   1. 定义.

      "许可证"指本文档第一到九节中使用、再生成和散布的条款和条件。

      "许可者"指发出本许可证的版权持有人或版权持有人授权的实体。

      "法人"指自然人和控制、被控制、在共同控制下的其它实体的联合。
      为了定义的目的,控制是指 (i) 根据合约或其它方式直接或间接控制
      实体的方向或管理, 或 (ii) 控制50%或以上的流通股, 或 (iii) 
      实体利益的拥有者。

      "你"指本许可证授权的个人或法人。

      "源"形式指适合作出修改的形式,包括但不限于软件的源代码、文档代码和配置文件。

      "对象"形式指源形式经机器转换或翻译产生的任何形式,包括但不限于
      编译过的对象代码、生成的文档或到其它媒体类型的转换。

      "作品"指有著作权的作品,不论以源或对象形式在许可证下可用,如作品
      包括划附带的版权声明所示(附录中提供了例子).

      "衍生作品"是指基于(或派生于)作品的源或对象形式的作品,其中编辑版本、标注、
      解读或任何其它修改是作为一个原著作权作品整体的。就本许可证的用途,派生作品
      不包括维持分开形式或只是链接作品或衍生作品的接口(按名绑定)。

      "贡献"指任何有著作权的作品,包括原始版本的作品和由版权持有人或其代表个人或法人
      有意提交给许可者供包含的作品或衍生作品的任何修改或增加。就本定义的目的,"提交"
      指任何发给许可者或其代表的电子、口头或书面通信形式,包括但不限于由许可者或许可者
      代表为讨论和改进作品而管理的电邮列表、源代码控制系统、缺陷跟踪系统,但排除由
      版权持有人明显标识或区分为"非贡献"的通信。

      "贡献者"指许可者和任何许可者从其收到贡献并整合到作品的个人或法人。

   2. 授予版权许可。在本许可证的条款和条件下,各个贡献者授予你永久、非排他、
      世界性、无偿、免版税、不可撤回的版权许可于以源或对象形式重新生成、
      预备衍生作品、公开展示、公开演绎、再授权和发布作品和其衍生作品。

   3. 授予专利许可。在本许可证的条款和条件下,各个贡献者授予你永久、非排他、
      世界性、无偿、免版税、不可撤回(除本节说明外)的专利许可以制作、被制作、
      使用、提供销售、销售、进口或以其它方式转移作品,授予只限于贡献者可授予
      且其所提交贡献或贡献组合必然侵犯的专利。若你对任何实体就作品或构成作品
      的贡献直接或促成专利侵权进行专利诉讼(包括交叉请求和反请求案件),
      则所有在本许可证下授予你对作品的任何专利许可在诉讼提出后终止。

   4. 再散布。你可以在任何媒介再生成和散布作品或其衍生作品,不论有否修改,
      在源或对象形式,只要满足以下条件:

      (a) 你必须给作品或衍生作品的所有其它接收人本许可证的副本

      (b) 你必须在所有修改过的文本明确指出你修改过它们

      (c) 你在散布的衍生作品的源形式必须保留所有版权、专利、商标和属性注记,
          除去在衍生作品中不适用的

      (d) 若作品包括"NOTICE"文本文件作为散布的一部分,则你散布的衍生作品必须
          包括NOTICE文件中属性注记可读的复本,除去不适用的部分,放在以下地方
          之一:作为衍生作品一部分发布的NOTICE文本文件;在随衍生作品散布的
          源形式或文档中;在衍生作品生成的第三文注记显示中。NOTICE文件的内容
          是只是为了提供信息用途,不修改许可证。你可以在你散布的衍生作品加上
          你自己的属性注记,分开或加到作品的NOTICE文本文件中,但额外的属性注记
          不能修改许可证。

      你可以向你的修改加上版权声明并可以就使用、再生成或散布你的修改或
      整个衍生作品提供额外或其它许可证条款和条件,但你的使用、再生成和
      散布必须符合本许可证的条件。

   5. 提交贡献。除非你明确另行说明,你有意向许可者提供以包含于作品的贡献
      会在本许可证的条款和条件下,没有任何额外的条款和条件。不然,这里不会
      取代或修改任何你与许可者就有关贡献达成的分立许可证协议。

   6. 商标。本许可证并不授予对许可者的商品名、商标、服务名或产品名的使用权,
      除了描述作品内容的合理和惯用法和重新生成NOTICE文件的内容。

   7. 免责声明。除非可用法例或书面同意,许可者只提供作品本身(每个贡献提供贡献),
      没有任何类型的保证或条件,无论是明示或暗示,包括但不限于标题、非违法性、
      适销性或特定用途的适应性。你独自为决定使用或散布作品的恰当性负责并假定
      任何风险。

   8. 有限责任。在没有事件和没有法律理论,不管是民事(包括过失)、合约或其它,
      除非可用法律(如深思熟虑和粗心大意的行为)要求或书面同意,贡献者不会因
      这许可证、使用或无法使用作品造成的直接、间接、特殊、意外或后续损失负责
     (包括但不限于愿望的失落、工作停顿、计算机故障或不正常工作和其它商业损失),
      即使贡献者已被告知出现损失的可能性。

   9. 接受保证或额外责任。当重新发布或衍生作品,你可以选择提供支持、保证、
       赔偿、法定义务和或其它并为此收费和/与本许可证相容的权利。然而,当你
       接受这些义务,你只能代表你自己并只是你的责任,不代表其它贡献者,只有
       你同意因你接受的任何保证或额外责任而就指控赔偿、辩护而保持对贡献者无害。

   条款和条件结束

   附录: 如何把Apache许可证用到你的作品

      为了把Apache许可证用到你的作品,把以下告示附加到你的作品并把方括号
      包围的字段换成你的标识信息(不包含方括号)。文本应在文件格式合适的
      注释语法中。我们建议在同一"打印页"包含文件或类名及其用途作为版权告示
      以便与在第三方归档中标识身份。

   版权所有 [年份] [版权持有人名字]

   在Apache许可证版本2.0下许可;
   除非与本许可证相容,你不能使用本文件。
   你可以获取本许可证的副本:

       http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

   除非适用法律要求或书面同意,本许可证下散布的软件只散布本身,
   没有任何类型的明示或暗示的保证或条件。
   关于本许可证下的权限和限制参见许可证的相应文本。

Apache许可证相比MIT和BSD许可证更规范一些,有以下几点要额外注意:

  • 你修改文件后必须表明你修改过
  • 明确授予使用软件所需的必要专利许可(当然你也不能随便授予不属于你的专利)
  • 向Apache提交的贡献默认视为在本许可证下发布。由于Apache基金会公开接受贡献,故涉及了接受贡献的许可问题。
                                 Apache License
                           Version 2.0, January 2004
                        http://www.apache.org/licenses/

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   Copyright [yyyy] [name of copyright owner]

   Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
   you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
   You may obtain a copy of the License at

       http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

   Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
   distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
   WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
   See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
   limitations under the License.

GPL

GPL原来被用于GNU项目的众多软件,现在使用极为广泛,如包括Linux(使用GPL2)。GPL3形如:

GNU通用公共许可协议
第三版,2007年6月29日
版权所有 © 2007 自由软件基金会 <http://fsf.org/>
任何人皆可复制和发布本协议的完整副本,但不得修改

【译者声明】

  This is an unofficial translation of the GNU General Public License into Chinese. It was not published by the Free Software Foundation, and does not legally state the distribution terms for software that uses the GNU GPL--only the original English text of the GNU GPL does that. However, we hope that this translation will help Chinese speakers understand the GNU GPL better.
  这是GNU通用公共许可协议的一份非官方中文翻译,并非自由软件基金会所发表,不适用于使用GNU通用公共许可协议发布的软件的法律声明——只有GNU通用公共许可协议英文原版才具有法律效力。不过我们希望本翻译能够帮助中文读者更好地理解GNU通用公共许可协议。

You may publish this translation, modified or unmodified, only under the terms at https://www.gnu.org/licenses/translations.html.
【引言】

  GNU通用公共许可协议是一份面向软件及其他类型作品的,自由的版权共产协议。
  就多数软件而言,许可协议被设计用于剥夺你分享和修改软件的自由。相反,GNU通用公共许可协议力图保障你分享和修改某程序全部版本的权利——确保自由软件对其用户来说是自由的。我们自由软件基金会将GNU通用公共许可协议用于我们的大多数软件,并为一些其他作品的作者效仿。你也可以将本协议用于你的程序。
  所谓自由软件,强调自由,而非免费。本GNU通用公共许可协议设计用于确保你享有分发自由软件的自由(你可以为此服务收费),确保你可以在需要的时候获得这些软件的源码,确保你可以修改这些软件或者在新的自由软件中复用其中某些片段,并且确保你在这方面享有知情权。
  为保障你的权益,我们需要作一些限定:禁止任何人否认你的上述权利,或者要求你放弃它们。因此,当你分发或修改这些软件时,你有一定的责任——尊重他人的自由。如果你分发这种程序的副本,无论收费还是免费,你必须给予与你同等的权利。你还要确保他们也能收到源码并了解他们的权利。
  采用GNU通用公共许可协议的开发者通过两步保障你的权益:其一,申明软件的版权;其二,通过本协议使你可以合法地复制、分发和修改该软件。
  为了保护每一位作者和开发者,GNU通用公共许可协议指明一点:自由软件并没有品质担保。为用户和作者双方着想,GNU通用公共许可协议要求修改版必须有标记,以免其问题被错误地归到先前版本的作者身上。
  某些设备设计成拒绝用户安装运行修改过的软件,但厂商不受限。这和我们保护用户享有修改软件的自由的宗旨存在根本性矛盾。该滥用协议的模式出现于个人用品领域,这恰是最不可接受的。因此,我们设计了这版GNU通用公共许可协议来禁止这类产品。如果此类问题在其他领域涌现,我们时刻准备着在将来的版本中把规定扩展到相应领域,以保护用户的自由。
  最后,每个程序都持续受到软件专利的威胁。政府不应该允许专利限制通用计算机软件的开发和应用,在做不到这点时,我们希望避免专利应用有效地使自由软件私有化的危险。就此,GNU通用公共许可协议保证专利不能使程序非自由化。

  下文是关于复制、分发和修改的严谨描述和实施条件。
【关于复制、分发和修改的术语和条件】

〇、定义

  “本协议”指GNU通用公共许可协议第三版。
  “版权”也指适用于诸如半导体掩模的其他类型作品的类似法律。
  “本程序”指任何在本协议保护下的有版权的作品。每个许可获得者称作“你”。“许可获得者”和“接收者”可以是个人或组织。
  “修改”一个作品指需要版权许可的复制及对作品全面的或部分的改编行为,有别于制作副本。所产生的作品称作前作的“修改版”,或“基于”前作的作品。
  “受保护作品”指程序或其派生作品。
  “传播”作品指那些未经许可就会在适用版权法律下构成直接或间接侵权的行为,不包括在计算机上运行和私下的修改。传播包括复制、分发(无论修改与否)、向公众公开,以及在某些国家的其他行为。
  “转发”作品指让他方能够制作或者接收副本的行为。仅仅通过计算机网络和用户交互,没有传输副本,则不算转发。
  一个显示“适当的法律声明”的交互式用户界面应包括一个便捷而醒目的可视化特性:(1)显示适当的版权声明;(2)告知用户没有品质担保(提供了品质担保的情况除外),许可获得者可以在本协议约束下转发该作品,及查看本协议副本的途径。如果该界面提供一个命令列表,如菜单,其表项应符合上述规范。

一、源码

  作品的源码指其可修改的首选形式,目标码指所有其他形式。
  “标准接口”指标准化组织定义的官方标准中的接口,或针为某种编程语言设定的接口中为开发者广泛使用的接口。
  可执行作品中的“系统库”不是指整个程序,而是涵盖此等内容:(a)以通常形式和主部件打包到一起却并非后者一部分,且(b)仅为和主部件一起使作品可用或实现某些已有公开实现源码的接口。“主部件”在这里指可执行作品运行依赖的操作系统(如果存在)的必要部件(内核、窗口系统等),生成该作品的编译器,或运行所需的目标码解释器。
  目标码形式的作品中“相应的源码”指所有修改作品及生成、安装、运行(对可执行作品而言)目标码所需的源码,包括控制上述行为的脚本。可是,其中不包括系统库、通用工具、未修改直接用于支持上述行为却不是该作品一部分的通常可得的自由软件。例如,相应的源码包含配合作品源文件的接口定义,以及共享库和作品专门依赖的动态链接子程序的源码。这里的依赖体现为频密的数据交换或者该子程序和作品其他部分的控制流切换。
  相应的源码不必包含那些用户可以通过源码其他部分自动生成的内容。
  源码形式作品的相应源码即其本身。

二、基本许可

  本协议的一切授权都是对本程序的版权而言的,并且在所述条件都满足时不可撤销。本协议明确批准你不受限制地运行本程序的未修改版本。受保护作品的运行输出,仅当其内容构成一个受保护作品时,才会为本协议所约束。如版权法所赋予,本协议承认你正当使用或与之等价的权利。
  只要你获得的许可仍有效,你可以制作、运行和传播那些你并不转发的受保护作品。只要你遵守本协议中关于转发你不占有版权的材料的条款,你可以向他人转发,仅仅以求对方为你做定制或向你提供运行这些作品的工具。那些为你制作或运行这些受保护作品的人,应该在你的指引和控制下,谨代表你工作,即禁止他们在双方关系之外制作任何你提供的受版权保护材料的副本。
  仅当满足后文所述条件时,其他各种情况下的转发才是允许的。不允许再授权行为,而第十条的存在使再授权变得没有必要。

三、保护用户的合法权益免受反破解法限制

  在任何满足1996年12月20日通过的WIPO版权条约第11章要求的法律,或类似的禁止或限制技术手段破解的法律下,受保护作品不应该视为有效技术手段的一部分。
  当你转发一个受保护作品时,你将失去任何通过法律途径限制技术手段破解的权力,乃至于通过行使本协议所予权利实现的破解。你即已表明无心通过限制用户操作或修改受保护作品来确保你或第三方关于禁止技术手段破解的法定权利。

四、转发完整副本

  你可以通过任何媒介发布你接收到的本程序的完整源码副本,但要做到:为每一个副本醒目而恰当地发布版权;完整地保留关于本协议及按第七条加入的非许可性条款;完整地保留免责声明;给接收者附上一份本协议的副本。
  你可以免费或收费转发,也可以选择提供技术支持或品质担保以换取收入。

五、转发修改过的源码版本

  你可以以源码形式转发基于本程序的作品或修改的内容,除满足第四条外还需要满足以下几点要求:
  a)该作品必须带有醒目的修改声明及相应的日期。
  b)该作品必须带有醒目的声明,指出其在本协议及任何符合第七条的附加条件下发布。这个要求修正了第四条关于“完整保留”的内容。
  c)你必须按照本协议将该作品整体向想要获得许可的人授权,本协议及符合第七条的附加条款就此适用于整个作品,即其每一部分,不管如何建包。本协议不允许以其他形式授权该作品,但如果你收到别的许可则另当别论。
  d)如果该作品有交互式用户界面,则其必须显示适当的法律声明。然而,当本程序有交互式用户界面却不显示适当的法律声明时,你的作品也不必。
一个在存储或分发媒介上的受保护作品和其他分离的单体作品的联合作品,在既不是该受保护作品的自然扩展,也不以构筑更大的程序为目的,并且自身及其产生的版权并非用于限制单体作品给予联合作品用户的访问及其他合法权利时,称为“聚合体”。在聚合作品中包含受保护作品并不会使本协议影响聚合作品的其他部分。

六、以非源码形式转发

  你可以如第四条和第五条所述那样以目标码形式转发受保护作品,同时在本协议规范下以如下方式之一转发机器可读的对应源码:
  a)目标码通过实体产品(涵盖某种实体分发媒介)转发时,通过常用于软件交换的耐用型实体媒介随同转发相应的源码。
  b)目标码通过实体产品(涵盖某种实体分发媒介)转发时,伴以具有至少三年且与售后服务等长有效期的书面承诺,给予目标码的持有者:(1)包含产品全部软件的相应源码的常用于软件交换的耐用型实体媒介,且收费不超过其合理的转发成本;或者(2)通过网络免费获得相应源码的途径。
  c)单独转发目标码时,伴以提供源码的书面承诺。本选项仅在你收到目标码及b项形式的承诺的情况下可选。
  d)通过在指定地点提供目标码获取服务(无论是否收费)的形式转发目标码时,在同一地点以同样的方式提供对等的源码获取服务,并不得额外收费。你不以要求接收者在复制目标码的同时复制源码。如果提供目标码复制的地点为网络服务器,相应的源码可以提供在另一个支持相同复制功能的服务器上(由你或者第三方运营),不过你要在目标码处指出相应源码的确切路径。不管你用什么源码服务器,你有义务要确保持续可用以满足这些要求。
  e)通过点对点传输转发目标码时,告知其他节点目标码和源码在何处以d项形式向大众免费提供。
  “面向用户的产品”指(1)“消费品”,即个人、家庭或日常用途的个人有形财产;或者(2)面向社会团体设计或销售,却落入居家之物。在判断一款产品是否消费品时,争议案例的判断将向利于扩大保护靠拢。就特定用户接收到特定产品而言,“正常使用”指对此类产品的典型或一般使用,不管该用户的身份,该用户对该产品的实际用法,以及该产品的预期用法。无论产品是否实质上具有商业上的,工业上的,及非面向消费者的用法,它都视为消费品,除非以上用法代表了它唯一的重要使用模式。
  “安装信息”对面向用户的产品而言,指基于修改过的源码安装运行该产品中的受保护作品的修改版所需的方法、流程、认证码及其他信息。这些信息必须足以保证修改过的目标码不会仅仅因为被修改过而不能继续工作。
  如果你根据本条在,或随,或针对一款面向用户的产品,以目标码形式转发某作品,且转发体现于该产品的所有权和使用权永久或者在一定时期内转让予接收者的过程(无论其有何特点),根据本条进行的源码转发必须伴有安装信息。不过,如果你和第三方都没有保留在该产品上安装修改后的目标码的能力(如作品安装在ROM上),这项要求不成立。   要求提供安装信息并不要求为修改或安装的作品,以及其载体产品继续提供技术支持、品质担保和升级。当修改本身对网络运行有实质上的负面影响,或违背了网络通信协议和规则时,可以拒绝其联网。
  根据本条发布的源码及安装信息,必须以公共的文件格式(并且存在可用的空开源码的处理工具)存在,同时不得对解压、阅读和复制设置任何密码。

七、附加条款

  “附加许可”用于补充本协议,以允许一些例外情况。合乎适用法律的对整个程序适用的附加许可,应该被视为本协议的内容。如果附加许可作用于程序的某部分,则该部分受此附加许可约束,而其他部分不受其影响。
  当你转发本程序时,你可以选择性删除副本或其部分的附加条款。(附加条款可以写明在某些情况下要求你修改时删除该条款。)在你拥有或可授予恰当版权许可的受保护作品中,你可以在你添加的材料上附加许可。
  尽管已存在本协议的其他条款,对你添加到受保护作品的材料,你可以(如果你获得该材料版权持有人的授权)以如下条款补充本协议:
  a)表示不提供品质担保或有超出十五、十六条的责任。
  b)要求在此材料中或在适当的法律声明中保留特定的合理法律声明或创作印记。
  c)禁止误传材料的起源,或要求合理标示修改以别于原版。
  d)限制以宣传为目的使用该材料的作者或授权人的名号。
  e)降低约束以便赋予在商标法下使用商品名、商品标识及服务标识。
  f)要求任何转发该材料(或其修改版)并对接收者提供契约性责任许诺的人,保证这种许诺不会给作者或授权人带来连带责任。
  此外的非许可性附加条款都被视作第十条所说的“进一步的限制”。如果你接收到的程序或其部分,声称受本协议约束,却补充了这种进一步的限制条款,你可以去掉它们。如果某许可协议包含进一步的限制条款,但允许通过本协议再授权或转发,你可以通过本协议再授权或转发加入了受前协议管理的材料,不过要同时移除上述条款。
  如果你根据本条向受保护作品添加了调控,你必须在相关的源文件中加入对应的声明,或者指出哪里可以找到它们。
  附加条款,不管是许可性的还是非许可性的,可以以独立的书面协议出现,也可以声明为例外情况,两种做法都可以实现上述要求。

八、终止授权

  除非在本协议明确授权下,你不得传播或修改受保护作品。其他任何传播或修改受保护作品的企图都是无效的,并将自动中止你通过本协议获得的权利(包括第十一条第3段中提到的专利授权)。
  然而,当你不再违反本协议时,你从特定版权持有人处获得的授权恢复:(1)暂时恢复,直到版权持有人明确终止;(2)永久恢复,如果版权持有人没能在60天内以合理的方式指出你的侵权行为。
  再者,如果你第一次收到了特定版权持有人关于你违反本协议(对任意作品)的通告,且在收到通告后30天内改正,那你可以继续享此有授权。
  当你享有的权利如本条所述被中止时,已经从你那根据本协议获得授权的他方的权利不会因此中止。在你的权利恢复之前,你没有资格凭第十条获得同一材料的授权。

九、持有副本无需接受协议

  你不必为接收或运行本程序而接受本协议。类似的,仅仅因点对点传输接收到副本引发的对受保护作品的辅助性传播,并不要求接受本协议。但是,除本协议外没有什么可以授权你传播或修改任何受保护作品。如果你不接受本协议,这些行为就侵犯了版权。因此,一旦修改和传播一个受保护作品,就表明你接受本协议。

十、对下游接收者的自动授权

  每当你转发一个受保护作品,其接收者自动获得来自初始授权人的授权,依照本协议可以运行、修改和传播此作。你没有要求第三方遵守该协议的义务。
  “实体事务”指转移一个组织的控制权或全部资产、或拆分或合并组织的事务。如果实体事务导致一个受保护作品的传播,则事务中各收到作品副本方,都有获得前利益相关者享有或可以如前段所述提供的对该作品的任何授权,以及从前利益相关者处获得并拥有相应的源码的权利,如果前利益相关者享有或可以通过合理的努力获得此源码。
  你不可以对本协议所授权利的行使施以进一步的限制。例如,你不可以索要授权费或版税,或就行使本协议所授权利征收其他费用;你也不能发起诉讼(包括交互诉讼和反诉),宣称制作、使用、零售、批发、引进本程序或其部分的行为侵犯了任何专利。

十一、专利

  “贡献人”指通过本协议对本程序或其派生作品进行使用认证的版权持有人。授权作品成为贡献人的“贡献者版”。
  贡献人的“实质专利权限”指其拥有或掌控的,无论是已获得的还是将获得的全部专利权限中,可能被通过某种本协议允许的方式制作、使用或销售其贡献者版作品的行为侵犯的部分,不包括仅有修改其贡献者版作品才构成侵犯的部分。“掌控”所指包括享有和本协议相一致的专利再授权的权利。
  每位贡献人皆其就实质专利权限,授予你一份全球有效的免版税的非独占专利许可,以制作、使用、零售、批发、引进,及运行、修改、传播其贡献者版的内容。
  在以下三段中,“专利许可”指通过任何方式明确表达的不行使专利权(如对使用专利的明确许可和不起诉专利侵权的契约)的协议或承诺。对某方“授予”专利许可,指这种不对其行使专利权的协议或承诺。
  如果你转发的受保护作品已知依赖于某专利,而其相应的源码并不是任何人都能根据本协议从网上或其他地方免费获得,那你必须(1)以上述方式提供相应的源码;或者(2)放弃从该程序的专利许可中获得利益;或者(3)以某种和本协议相一致的方式将专利许可扩展到下游接收者。“已知依赖于”指你实际上知道若没有专利许可,你在某国家转发受保护作品的行为,或者接收者在某国家使用受保护作品的行为,会侵犯一项或多项该国认定的专利,而这些专利你有理由相信它们的有效性。
  如果根据一项事务或安排,抑或与之相关,你转发某受保护作品,或通过促成其转手以实现传播,并且该作品的接收方授予专利许可,以使指可以使用、传播、修改或转发该作品的特定副本,则此等专利许可将自动延伸及每一个收到该作品或其派生作品的人。
  如果某专利在其涵盖范围内,不包含本协议专门赋予的一项或多项权利,禁止行使它们或以不行使它们为前提,则该专利是“歧视性”的。如果你和软件发布行业的第三方有合作,合作要求你就转发受保护作品的情况向其付费,并授予作品接收方歧视性专利,而且该专利(a)与你转发的副本(或在此基础上制作的副本)有关,或针对包含该受保护作品的产品或联合作品,你不得转发本程序,除非参加此项合作或取得该专利早于2007年3月28日。
  本协议的任何部分不应被解释成在排斥或限制任何暗含的授权,或者其他在适用法律下对抗侵权的措施。

十二、不得牺牲他人的自由

  即便你面临与本协议条款冲突的条件(来自于法庭要求、协议或其他),那也不能成为你违背本协议的理由。倘若你不能在转发受保护作品时同时满足本协议和其他文件的要求,你就不能转发本程序。例如,当你同意了某些要求你就再转发问题向你的转发对象收取版税的条款时,唯一能同时满足它和本协议要求的做法便是不转发本程序。

十三、和GNU Affero通用公共许可协议一起使用

  尽管已存在本协议的一些条款,你可以将任何受保护作品与以GNU Affero通用公共许可协议管理的作品关联或组合成一个联合作品,并转发。本协议对其中的受保护作品部分仍然有效,但GNU Affero通用公共许可协议第十三条的关于网络交互的特别要求适用于整个联合作品。

十四、本协议的修订版

  自由软件联盟可能会不定时发布GNU通用公共许可协议的修订版或新版。新版将秉承当前版本的精神,但对问题或事项的描述细节不尽相同。
  每一版都会有不同的版本号,如果本程序指定其使用的GNU通用公共许可协议的版本“或任何更新的版本”,你可以选择遵守该版本或者任何更新的版本的条款。如果本程序没有指定协议版本,你可以选用自由软件联盟发布的任意版本的GNU通用公共许可协议。
  如果本程序指定代理来决定将来那个GNU通用公共许可协议版本适用,则该代理的公开声明将指导你选择协议版本。
  新的版本可能会给予你额外或不同的许可。但是,任何作者或版权持有人的义务,不会因为你选择新的版本而增加。

十五、不提供品质担保

  本程序在适用法律范围内不提供品质担保。除非另作书面声明,版权持有人及其他程序提供者“概”不提供任何显式或隐式的品质担保,品质担保所指包括而不仅限于有经济价值和适合特定用途的保证。全部风险,如程序的质量和性能问题,皆由你承担。若程序出现缺陷,你将承担所有必要的修复和更正服务的费用。

十六、责任范围

  除非适用法律或书面协议要求,任何版权持有人或本程序按本协议可能存在的第三方修改和再发布者,都不对你的损失负有责任,包括由于使用或者不能使用本程序造成的任何一般的、特殊的、偶发的或重大的损失(包括而不仅限于数据丢失、数据失真、你或第三方的后续损失、其他程序无法与本程序协同运作),即使那些人声称会对此负责

十七、第十五条和第十六条的解释

  如果上述免责声明和责任范围声明不为地方法律所支持,上诉法庭应采用与之最接近的关于放弃本程序相关民事责任的地方法律,除非本程序附带收费的品质担保或责任许诺。
【附录:如何将上述条款应用到你的新程序】

  如果你开发了一个新程序,并希望它能最大限度地为公众所使用,最好的办法是将其作为自由软件,以使每个人都能在本协议约束下对其再发布及修改。
  为此,请在附上以下声明。最安全的做法是将其附在每份源码的开头,以便于最有效地传递免责信息。同时,每个文件至少包含一处“版权”声明和一个协议全文的链接。

  <用一行来标明程序名及其作用>
  版权所有(C)<年份> <作者姓名>
  本程序为自由软件,在自由软件联盟发布的GNU通用公共许可协议的约束下,你可以对其进行再发布及修改。协议版本为第三版或(随你)更新的版本。
  我们希望发布的这款程序有用,但不保证,甚至不保证它有经济价值和适合特定用途。详情参见GNU通用公共许可协议。
  你理当已收到一份GNU通用公共许可协议的副本,如果没有,请查阅<http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>

  同时提供你的电子邮件地址或传统的邮件联系方式。

  如果该程序是交互式的,让它在交互模式下输出类似下面的一段声明:

  <程序名> 第69版,版权所有(C)<年份> <作者姓名>
  本程序从未提供品质担保,输入'show w'可查看详情。这是款自由软件,欢迎你在满足一定条件后对其再发布,输入'show c'可查看详情。

  例子中的命令'show w'和'show c'应用于显示GNU通用公共许可协议相应的部分。当然你也可以因地制宜地选用别的方式,对图形界面程序可以用“关于”菜单。

  如果你之上存在雇主(你是码农)或校方,你还应当让他们在必要时为此程序签署放弃版权声明。详情参见<http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>。

  本GNU通用公共许可协议不允许把你的程序并入私有程序。如果你的程序是某种库,且你想允许它被私有程序链接而使之更有用,请使用GNU较宽松通用公共许可协议。决定前请先查阅<http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/why-not-lgpl.html>。 

GPL(通用公共许可证)是法律气息比较重的一个许可证。与Apache许可证一样提供专利授权和要求标记修改,但GPL最大的特点是一个Copyleft的传染性许可证,也就是说对GPL软件的修改也必须在GPL下发布,特别地必须是“开源的”。如果你想“闭源”GPL软件的衍生版本,你还是可以向作者请求GPL以外的其它授权,当然这一般要给钱,所以不少公司乐于发布GPL软件而不喜欢使用GPL软件。另外,如果你只是把GPL软件作为一个整体来使用,而不是以GPL软件为基础发展,那么你得到的聚合体的其它部分不必要是GPL的,所以可以放心调用GPL库。

GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
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 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
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  To protect your rights, we need to prevent others from denying you
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  All other non-permissive additional terms are considered "further
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  9. Acceptance Not Required for Having Copies.

  You are not required to accept this License in order to receive or
run a copy of the Program.  Ancillary propagation of a covered work
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to receive a copy likewise does not require acceptance.  However,
nothing other than this License grants you permission to propagate or
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  10. Automatic Licensing of Downstream Recipients.

  Each time you convey a covered work, the recipient automatically
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  An "entity transaction" is a transaction transferring control of an
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  You may not impose any further restrictions on the exercise of the
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  11. Patents.

  A "contributor" is a copyright holder who authorizes use under this
License of the Program or a work on which the Program is based.  The
work thus licensed is called the contributor's "contributor version".

  A contributor's "essential patent claims" are all patent claims
owned or controlled by the contributor, whether already acquired or
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but do not include claims that would be infringed only as a
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  In the following three paragraphs, a "patent license" is any express
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party means to make such an agreement or commitment not to enforce a
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  If you convey a covered work, knowingly relying on a patent license,
and the Corresponding Source of the work is not available for anyone
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then you must either (1) cause the Corresponding Source to be so
available, or (2) arrange to deprive yourself of the benefit of the
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actual knowledge that, but for the patent license, your conveying the
covered work in a country, or your recipient's use of the covered work
in a country, would infringe one or more identifiable patents in that
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  If, pursuant to or in connection with a single transaction or
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  A patent license is "discriminatory" if it does not include within
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to the third party based on the extent of your activity of conveying
the work, and under which the third party grants, to any of the
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conveyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) primarily
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contain the covered work, unless you entered into that arrangement,
or that patent license was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

  Nothing in this License shall be construed as excluding or limiting
any implied license or other defenses to infringement that may
otherwise be available to you under applicable patent law.

  12. No Surrender of Others' Freedom.

  If conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot convey a
covered work so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you may
not convey it at all.  For example, if you agree to terms that obligate you
to collect a royalty for further conveying from those to whom you convey
the Program, the only way you could satisfy both those terms and this
License would be to refrain entirely from conveying the Program.

  13. Use with the GNU Affero General Public License.

  Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
under version 3 of the GNU Affero General Public License into a single
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License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work,
but the special requirements of the GNU Affero General Public License,
section 13, concerning interaction through a network will apply to the
combination as such.

  14. Revised Versions of this License.

  The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions of
the GNU General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.

  Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the
Program specifies that a certain numbered version of the GNU General
Public License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the
option of following the terms and conditions either of that numbered
version or of any later version published by the Free Software
Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of the
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by the Free Software Foundation.

  If the Program specifies that a proxy can decide which future
versions of the GNU General Public License can be used, that proxy's
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to choose that version for the Program.

  Later license versions may give you additional or different
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later version.

  15. Disclaimer of Warranty.

  THERE IS NO WARRANTY FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY
APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT
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IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF
ALL NECESSARY SERVICING, REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

  16. Limitation of Liability.

  IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MODIFIES AND/OR CONVEYS
THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES, INCLUDING ANY
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USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOSS OF
DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY YOU OR THIRD
PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER PROGRAMS),
EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
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  17. Interpretation of Sections 15 and 16.

  If the disclaimer of warranty and limitation of liability provided
above cannot be given local legal effect according to their terms,
reviewing courts shall apply local law that most closely approximates
an absolute waiver of all civil liability in connection with the
Program, unless a warranty or assumption of liability accompanies a
copy of the Program in return for a fee.

                     END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS

            How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

  If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
state the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

    <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
    Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>

    This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
    it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
    the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
    (at your option) any later version.

    This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
    but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
    MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
    GNU General Public License for more details.

    You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
    along with this program.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

  If the program does terminal interaction, make it output a short
notice like this when it starts in an interactive mode:

    <program>  Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>
    This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
    This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
    under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
parts of the General Public License.  Of course, your program's commands
might be different; for a GUI interface, you would use an "about box".

  You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or school,
if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if necessary.
For more information on this, and how to apply and follow the GNU GPL, see
<https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

  The GNU General Public License does not permit incorporating your program
into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you
may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with
the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser General
Public License instead of this License.  But first, please read
<https://www.gnu.org/licenses/why-not-lgpl.html>.

LGPL

LGPL原来用于GNU项目的一些库。内容如下:

GNU 较宽松公共许可证 (简体中文翻译版)

 
声明!
这是一份 GNU 较宽松公共许可证非正式的中文翻译。它并非由自由软件基金会所发表,亦非使用 GNU 较宽松公共许可证的文件的法定发布条款─只有 GNU 较宽松公共许可证英文原文的版本始具有此等效力。然而,我们希望这份翻译能帮助中文的使用者更了解 GNU 较宽松公共许可证。	 	This is an unofficial translation of the LGPL Free Documentation License into Chinese. It was not published by the Free Software Foundation, and does not legally state the distribution terms for documents that uses the GNU LGPL--only the original English text of the GNU LGPL does that. However, we hope that this translation will help Chinese speakers understand the GNU LGPL better.

 
GNU 较宽松公共许可证

第3版, 2007年6月29日

版权所有 (C)2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.(http://fsf.org/)

允许每个人复制和发布本授权文件的完整副本,
但不允许对它进行任何修改。

本版本的GNU较宽松公共许可证包含了GNU通用公共授权第三版里的项目和条款,以下是复制,发布和修改软件的详细条款和条件。

0.附加定义

“本授权”指GNU较宽松公共许可证第三版,“GNU GPL”是指通用公共授权第三版。

“库”指在本授权管理下的覆盖软件,有别于下列定义的应用软件或组合软件。

“应用程序”指任何通过“库”提供用于接口使用的软件,但非基于“库”。用“库”定义一个集的子集被认为是“库”提供的使用接口的一种模式。

“组合软件”是“库”和“应用软件”结合或连接而产生的一种软件。这种通过“组合软件”产生的特殊版本的“库”也被称之为“连接版本”。

“组合软件”里“最小对应源代码”是指“组合软件”基于“应用程序”,而非“连接版本”里的“对应源代码”,不包括被认为是孤立“组合软件”部份里的任何原代码。

“组合软件”里“对应应用程序代码”是指“应用程序”的目标编码和/或原代码,包括“应用程序”里重新编制“组合软件”所需的数据和有效程序,但不包括“组合软件”里的系统数据库。
1.通用公共授权第三版之例外

你可以发布本授权第三和四部份下的覆盖软件,不受GNU GPL 第三部份的限制。
2.发布修订版本

如果你修改了“库”的副本,并且在你的修改版本中,工具是指“应用程序”提供的函数或数据使用此工具(有别于当工具调用时作为一个论据传递),那么你可以发布修改版的副本:

a)在此许可下,假如你尽力确保“应用程序”不能提供功能和数据,程序仍然运行,并执行所剩目标的任何部份,或

b)在通用公共授权下,对于副本来说本授权无可接受的附加许可。
3.合并库标头文件里的资料为目标代码


以目标代码形式的程序可以从库里标头文件的资料合并而成是库的一部份。你可以按照你选择的条件上传这样的目标代码,只要组合资料对数字参数,数据结构设计,存取器或小的宏,排列功能和模版不受限定(长度小于10排),你可以做下列两项情况:

a)目标代码的每一个副本要给出明确通告库的使用要在本授权下发布。

b)目标代码要与GNU公用授权副本和本授权文件一起使用。
4.组合软件

你可以根据你的选择发布一个组合软件,并且有效地发布但不限制修改库(包含在组合软件里的库)的一部分,还可逆向调试这种修改,只要你满足以下的每一个条件:

a)目标代码的每一个副本要给出明确通告库的使用要在本授权下发布。

b)目标代码要与GNU公用授权副本和本授权文件一起使用。

c)组合软件在完成期间要显示版权通告,在这些通告中要包括库的版权通告,同时也要指出给使用者GNU公用授权的副本和本授权文件作为参考。

d)做下列之一:

0)在本授权下发布最小对应源代码,对应应用程序代码的形成,在此条件下允许用户用修改版重新组合或联接应用程序产生修改的组合程序,用此方式用以说明通过通用公共授权第六部份发布对应源代码。
1)使用适当的共享库机构联接库。适当机制是指(a)在运行时使用已经存在于用户电脑系统的库的副本。(b)库的修改版可以正常工作并且与连接版本兼容。

e)提供安装信息,但只有如果你,否则必须根据通用共公授权第六部份提供这些资料,范围仅限于这些资料是必要的安装和执行修改后的版本合并的工作所产生的重组或再重新联接应用程序与联系版本的修改版本。(如果选择4d0,安装信息必须与最小通讯资源和通讯应用软件代码一起使用。如果选择4d1,你必须在指定的方式下提供安装信息,由通用公共授权第六部份传输通讯资源。)
5.组合的库
你可以安排库设备,此程序根据库以单一的库并列地与其他即不是应用程序也不在本授权下发布的库设备排在一起,你可以根据你的选择发布“组合的库”,如果你做以下两项:

a)组合的库与库的相同程序的副本一起使用,未与任何其他库设备组合,在本授权条件下发布。

b)在组合的库里给出明确通告,此部份是基于库的一个程序,并说明相同程序未组合的位置。
6.GNU 较宽松公共许可证的修改版

自由软件基金会有时候可能会发布GNU较宽松公共许可证的修订版本和/或新版本。这样的新版本将会和现行版本保持精神上的一致性,但是可能会在细节上有所不同,以处理新的问题和情况。

每个版本都有一个单独的版本号。如果您收到的库指出了应用于本程序的一个特定的GNU较宽松公共许可证版本号“以及后续版本”,您将拥有选择该版本或任何由自由软件基金会发布的后续版本中的条款和条件的权利。如果您收的库没有指定特定的GNU较宽松公共许可证版本号,那么您可以选择任何自由软件基金会已发布的版本。

如果您收到的库指出某个代理可以决定将来的GNU较宽松公共许可证是否可以应用于本库,那么该代理的接受任何版本的公开称述都是您选择该版本应用于本库的永久认可。 

简单的说,LGPL对GPL作出了一些修改,容许LGPL程序可以调用非自由软件模块。

                   GNU LESSER GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
                       Version 3, 29 June 2007

 Copyright (C) 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. <https://fsf.org/>
 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.


  This version of the GNU Lesser General Public License incorporates
the terms and conditions of version 3 of the GNU General Public
License, supplemented by the additional permissions listed below.

  0. Additional Definitions.

  As used herein, "this License" refers to version 3 of the GNU Lesser
General Public License, and the "GNU GPL" refers to version 3 of the GNU
General Public License.

  "The Library" refers to a covered work governed by this License,
other than an Application or a Combined Work as defined below.

  An "Application" is any work that makes use of an interface provided
by the Library, but which is not otherwise based on the Library.
Defining a subclass of a class defined by the Library is deemed a mode
of using an interface provided by the Library.

  A "Combined Work" is a work produced by combining or linking an
Application with the Library.  The particular version of the Library
with which the Combined Work was made is also called the "Linked
Version".

  The "Minimal Corresponding Source" for a Combined Work means the
Corresponding Source for the Combined Work, excluding any source code
for portions of the Combined Work that, considered in isolation, are
based on the Application, and not on the Linked Version.

  The "Corresponding Application Code" for a Combined Work means the
object code and/or source code for the Application, including any data
and utility programs needed for reproducing the Combined Work from the
Application, but excluding the System Libraries of the Combined Work.

  1. Exception to Section 3 of the GNU GPL.

  You may convey a covered work under sections 3 and 4 of this License
without being bound by section 3 of the GNU GPL.

  2. Conveying Modified Versions.

  If you modify a copy of the Library, and, in your modifications, a
facility refers to a function or data to be supplied by an Application
that uses the facility (other than as an argument passed when the
facility is invoked), then you may convey a copy of the modified
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   a) under this License, provided that you make a good faith effort to
   ensure that, in the event an Application does not supply the
   function or data, the facility still operates, and performs
   whatever part of its purpose remains meaningful, or

   b) under the GNU GPL, with none of the additional permissions of
   this License applicable to that copy.

  3. Object Code Incorporating Material from Library Header Files.

  The object code form of an Application may incorporate material from
a header file that is part of the Library.  You may convey such object
code under terms of your choice, provided that, if the incorporated
material is not limited to numerical parameters, data structure
layouts and accessors, or small macros, inline functions and templates
(ten or fewer lines in length), you do both of the following:

   a) Give prominent notice with each copy of the object code that the
   Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are
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   b) Accompany the object code with a copy of the GNU GPL and this license
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  4. Combined Works.

  You may convey a Combined Work under terms of your choice that,
taken together, effectively do not restrict modification of the
portions of the Library contained in the Combined Work and reverse
engineering for debugging such modifications, if you also do each of
the following:

   a) Give prominent notice with each copy of the Combined Work that
   the Library is used in it and that the Library and its use are
   covered by this License.

   b) Accompany the Combined Work with a copy of the GNU GPL and this license
   document.

   c) For a Combined Work that displays copyright notices during
   execution, include the copyright notice for the Library among
   these notices, as well as a reference directing the user to the
   copies of the GNU GPL and this license document.

   d) Do one of the following:

       0) Convey the Minimal Corresponding Source under the terms of this
       License, and the Corresponding Application Code in a form
       suitable for, and under terms that permit, the user to
       recombine or relink the Application with a modified version of
       the Linked Version to produce a modified Combined Work, in the
       manner specified by section 6 of the GNU GPL for conveying
       Corresponding Source.

       1) Use a suitable shared library mechanism for linking with the
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       a copy of the Library already present on the user's computer
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   e) Provide Installation Information, but only if you would otherwise
   be required to provide such information under section 6 of the
   GNU GPL, and only to the extent that such information is
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   Combined Work produced by recombining or relinking the
   Application with a modified version of the Linked Version. (If
   you use option 4d0, the Installation Information must accompany
   the Minimal Corresponding Source and Corresponding Application
   Code. If you use option 4d1, you must provide the Installation
   Information in the manner specified by section 6 of the GNU GPL
   for conveying Corresponding Source.)

  5. Combined Libraries.

  You may place library facilities that are a work based on the
Library side by side in a single library together with other library
facilities that are not Applications and are not covered by this
License, and convey such a combined library under terms of your
choice, if you do both of the following:

   a) Accompany the combined library with a copy of the same work based
   on the Library, uncombined with any other library facilities,
   conveyed under the terms of this License.

   b) Give prominent notice with the combined library that part of it
   is a work based on the Library, and explaining where to find the
   accompanying uncombined form of the same work.

  6. Revised Versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License.

  The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the GNU Lesser General Public License from time to time. Such new
versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.

  Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the
Library as you received it specifies that a certain numbered version
of the GNU Lesser General Public License "or any later version"
applies to it, you have the option of following the terms and
conditions either of that published version or of any later version
published by the Free Software Foundation. If the Library as you
received it does not specify a version number of the GNU Lesser
General Public License, you may choose any version of the GNU Lesser
General Public License ever published by the Free Software Foundation.

  If the Library as you received it specifies that a proxy can decide
whether future versions of the GNU Lesser General Public License shall
apply, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of any version is
permanent authorization for you to choose that version for the
Library.

AGPL

AGPL与GPL几乎一样但更严格:要求通过网络使用程序(如SaaS云)的用户也能取得源代码。其中主要修改的段落是:

13. 远程网络交互; 与GNU通用公共许可证使用

不管本许可证的任何其他规定,如果您修改了程序,您的修改版本必须明显地向
所有通过计算机网络远程交互(如果您的版本支持这样的交互)的用户提供通过
网络服务器免费获取您的版本的相应源的机会,通过一些标准或习惯性手段来
促进软件的复制。该对应源应包括根据下段由GNU通用公共许可证第3版所涵盖
的任何合并工作的相应源。

不管本许可证的任何其他规定,您有权链接或组合任何覆盖工作和根据GNU
通用公共许可证第3版许可的工作为一个单一的组合工作,并传送所得到的工作。
本许可证的条款将继续适用于覆盖工作的部分,
但与之结合的工作仍将由GNU通用公共许可证的第3版管辖。

  13. Remote Network Interaction; Use with the GNU General Public License.

  Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, if you modify the
Program, your modified version must prominently offer all users
interacting with it remotely through a computer network (if your version
supports such interaction) an opportunity to receive the Corresponding
Source of your version by providing access to the Corresponding Source
from a network server at no charge, through some standard or customary
means of facilitating copying of software.  This Corresponding Source
shall include the Corresponding Source for any work covered by version 3
of the GNU General Public License that is incorporated pursuant to the
following paragraph.

  Notwithstanding any other provision of this License, you have
permission to link or combine any covered work with a work licensed
under version 3 of the GNU General Public License into a single
combined work, and to convey the resulting work.  The terms of this
License will continue to apply to the part which is the covered work,
but the work with which it is combined will remain governed by version
3 of the GNU General Public License.

MPL

MPL被用于Firefox和LibreOffice等软件。

(简体中文参考版译者声明: Mozilla 公共许可协议 2.0版简体中文翻译版仅为开发者参考使用,并不具备法律效力。开发者开发和发布相关软件须以 Mozilla Public License 2.0英文版 (https://www.mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/)条款为准。译者不承担任何法律责任。 )


Mozilla 公共许可协议 2.0版 
(简体中文参考版)

1. 定义

1.1 “贡献者”

     是指创造,协助创造,或拥有适用软件所有权的个人或法人实体。

1.2 “贡献者版本”

   是指一个贡献者使用他人的贡献(若有他人贡献)和该贡献者的个人贡献相结合创建的版本。
   
1.3 “贡献”

   是指特定贡献者的适用软件。
   
1.4 “适用软件”

是指原始贡献者在附录 A 中随附声明的源代码形式,相应源代码可执行形式,以及相应源代码形式的修改内容,并依情况显示修改占比。
   
1.5 “不兼容次级许可证”

   是指:

       a. 初始贡献者在附录B中随附适用软件声明;或

       b. 该适用软件适用于 Mozilla 公共许可协议 1.1版本或更早的许可证版本的条款,但对次级许可证的条款并不适用。

1.6 “可执行形式”

   是指除源代码形式以外的任何软件形式。
   
1.7 “广义软件”

   是指由适用软件和其他资料结合创建,并以独立文件或者文件集合形式存在的软件,该软件不属于适用软件范畴。

1.8 “许可证”

   是指本文档。

1.9 “许可授权”

   是指在最大范围内,无论是在初次许可或后继许可的情况下,有权授予任何及所有本许可证赋予的权利。

1.10 “修改”

   是指以下任何情形:

       a. 源代码形式中针对适用软件进行补充,删除,或内容修改后生成的任何文件;或

       b. 源代码形式中包含任何适用文件的全新文件。

1.11 贡献者的“专利权利声明”

   是指贡献者的任何一个或多个专利声明,包括但不限于方法,过程和设备声明,在任何可授权专利范围内被侵犯,但对于已授予许可的,包括制造,使用,销售,销售邀请,半成品,进口,或该软件或其贡献版本的转移形式不属于侵权范围。

1.12 “次级许可”

   是指 GNU 通用公共许可证2.0版本 (GNU General Public License, Version 2.0),GNU 宽通用公共许可证2.1 版本(GNU Lesser General Public License, Version 2.1),GNU Affero 通用公共许可3.0版本(GNU Affero General Public License, Version 3.0),或其更新的许可证版本。

1.13 “源代码形式”

   是指可用于修改的代码形式。

1.14 “您”(或“您的”)

   是指个人或执行本许可权利的法律实体。对于法人实体,“您”包括控制,被控制,或者和您在共同控制情况下的任何实体。在本定义中,“控制”是指(a) 以合同或者非合同形式引导或管理实体的直接或者间接权力,或(b)拥有超过百分之五十(50%)流通股所有权,或拥有该实体的实益拥有权。

2. 许可授予及条件

2.1 授予

每个贡献者以此方式授予您全球的,免版税及无排他性的许可:

    a. 在知识产权(非专利或商标权)许可权的情况下,允许贡献者使用,复制,普及,修改,展示,操作,传播,并以此用于开发个人贡献版本,无论是在未经修改的基础上,创建修改版本,或者作为广义软件的一部分;以及

    b. 在专利声明的情况下,允许贡献者制造,使用,销售,销售邀请,半成品制造,进口,及转让其贡献软件或其贡献者版本。

2.2 生效日期

在第2.1条中有关贡献作品的许可授权,在贡献者发布其贡献软件的首日起生效。

2.3 授予范围限制

在第2节中授予的许可证是本许可下授予的唯一权利。在本许可下有关适用软件的发布及许可权,在无特别声明的情况下,不具备除本许可规定之外的权利或者许可。在以下情况中,第2.1(b)条不表示贡献者已被授予专利权:

    a. 对于一个贡献者已经从适用软件中删除的任何代码;或

    b. 由以下情形产生的侵权行为:(i)您和任何第三方对于适用软件的修改,或(ii)其贡献软件与其它软件的结合(除非该软件已是贡献者版本的一部分);或

    c. 对于专利声明中因缺失贡献软件对适用软件产生的侵权行为 。

本许可证不授予任何贡献者商标,服务标记,或徽标(除可能需要符合第3.4条有关声明要求的情况外)许可。

2.4 后续许可证

对于您根据此许可的后续版本(见第10.2条),或者根据次级许可的条款(除依第3.3条允许的情况外)发布的适用软件,贡献者禁止对于进行额外的许可授权。

2.5 表示

每个贡献者表示该贡献者认可贡献软件是其原创的一个(或多个)软件,或依据本许可证对于其贡献软件拥有足够的权限授予权利。

2.6 合理使用

本许可证并非意在限制您在遵守版权规定下的合理使用,公平交易,或其他等值适用的权利。

2.7 条件

在第2.1条中的许可授予需满足第3.1,3.2,3.3,和3.4条中规定的条件。

3.责任

3.1 源代码形式发布

适用软件的所有源代码形式发布,包括您独自创建的修改,或您参与贡献的修改,必须遵守本许可证的条款。您必须告知接受者该适用软件的源代码形式是由本许可条款规定管理的,并告知其如何获得此许可证的副本。您无权修改或限制使用者对源代码形式的权利。

3.2 可执行形式发布

如果您以可执行形式发布适用软件,则:

    a. 这样的适用软件必须同时以源代码形式提供,按第3.1条所述,您必须及时告知可执行形式的接受者如何通过合理的方式获得该源代码形式的副本,并且费用收取不超过因发布给接受者而产生的费用;以及

    b. 您可依据本许可证条款发布可执行形式,或在符合本许可条款的情形下制定不同条款规定,但前提是可执行形式的许可证不可尝试限制或改变接受者依据本许可条款规定对源代码形式获取的权利。

3.3广义软件发布

您可以根据您选择的条款创建和发布一个广义软件,前提是您同时符合本许可证有关适用软件的要求。如果该广义软件是由适用软件与符合一个或者多个次级许可证规定的一个软件结合创建,并且适用软件与次级许可证条款不兼容,本许可证允许您在相应次级许可的条款下额外发布该适用软件,广义软件接收者可以,依据其选择,按照本许可证条款或者相应次级许可证条款发布此适用软件。

3.4声明

您不得删除或更改适用软件的源代码形式中包含的任何许可证声明(包括版权声明,专利声明,免责声明,或赔偿责任限制),除非该修改是对已知事实错误的补偿。

3.5附加条款的使用

您可以选择向一个或者多个适用软件的接受者提供无偿或有偿的保修,支持,赔偿或责任义务。但是,您只可以您自己的名义提供,而不是代表任何贡献者的名义。您必须绝对清楚地表明任何此类担保,支持,赔偿或责任义务是由您个人独立提供,并且您同意承担赔偿每一个贡献者因承担担保,支持,赔偿或责任义务而产生的任何赔偿责任。您必须提供附加免责声明,并将责任限制特定于任何一个司法管辖区。

4.因法规或条例产生的不可抗力

若因政策法规,司法命令或者监管制度,使得部分或者整个适用软件不能遵守本许可的某项条款,您则必须:(a)尽最大可能符合本许可证条款;和(b)描述因该政策引起的限制以及受影响的代码。该声明描述必须以文本文件形式包含在根据本协议发布的适用软件的所有发行版本中。除法律或法规禁止的情形外,声明描述必须足够详细清晰,以保证普通接受者能够理解该声明内容。

5.终止

5.1如果您违反本许可的任何一项条款,依据本许可授予的权利将自动终止。但是,如果您重新遵守本许可的规定,那么您从某特定贡献者按本许可所授予的权利可在如下情况下被恢复(a)临时恢复,除非贡献者明确终止对您的权利授予,以及(b)保留恢复,如果贡献者因合理原因未能在您重新遵守本许可规定之日的六十日前通知您违反规定。此外,如果您是第一次因违反本许可的规定受到贡献者的违例通知,并且您在三十日内重新遵守本许可规定,则您从该特定贡献者处获得的权利将被保留 。

5.2如果您通过声明的专利侵权索赔发起针对任何实体的诉讼(不包括宣告式判决,反诉和交叉诉讼),声称一个贡献者版本直接或间接侵犯某项专利权利, 依据本许可第2.1条授予您对适用软件的任何和所有权利将被终止。

5.3因以上第5.1条或第5.2条终止的情形,您或者您的发布者在本许可证终止前有效授予的所有最终用户许可协议(不包括分销商和经销商) 将继续有效。

6.免责声明

适用软件在根据本许可的“原样”的基础上,不予任何形式的担保,任何明示,暗示或法定的担保,包括但不限于担保适用软件免于缺陷,适销,适于特定目的或不侵权。您将承担有关适用软件的质量和性能的全部风险。如果任何适用软件在任何方面欠妥,将由您(不是任何贡献者)承担所有必要的服务,维修或纠正的费用成本。本免责声明构成了本许可的重要组成部分。除非遵守本免责声明,适用软件的使用将授权无效。

7.责任限制

在任何情况下,在任何法律规定下,无论是侵权(包括过失),合同或其他情形,任何贡献者,或按上述规定有权发布使用软件的任何实体,都不将承担您的任何直接,间接,特殊,偶然或后果损害赔偿,包括但不限于利润损失,商誉损失,停工,电脑故障或失灵,或任何和所有其他商业损害或损失,即使该方已被告知损失的可能性也不例外。该责任限制不适用于由于一方疏忽引起的死亡或人身伤害,适用法律禁止此类限制的范围内产生的法律责任。某些司法管辖区不允许意外或间接损害的排除或限制,因此此类排除和限制对您并不适用。

8.诉讼

任何与本协议有关的诉讼只能在不和地方法律规定冲突的情况下,在被告主营业务所在地的司法管辖区提出。本节不妨碍任何一方的交叉诉讼或反诉能力。

9.其他

本许可代表就本合同标的物的全部协议。如果本许可协议的任何条款被认为是不可执行的,该条款应进行修改至能予以执行的程度。按任何法律或法规规定,合同的语言应按对贡献者有利的解释,而不是向合同起草方有利的解释。

10. 许可证版本

10.1新版本

Mozilla 基金会是本许可证发布人。除第10.3条规定,许可证发布人之外的其他人无权修改或发布此许可证新版本的权利。每一个版本都会跟随一个全新的版本号。

10.2 新版本的影响

您可以依据您最初收到适用软件时的许可证,或依据由许可发布人发布的任何后续版本的许可条款发布适用软件。

10.3 修改版本

如果您未在本许可证监管下创建软件,并且您想为该软件创建新的许可证,您可以创建并使用此许可证的修改版,前提是您重新命名本许可证,并删除任何本许可证发布人的名字引用(注明这种修改许可证版本完全不同于原本许可证版本)。

10.4 不兼容次级许可证的源代码形式发布

如果您选择发布的源代码形式,不兼容该版本许可证条款下的次级许可证,则必须随附在本许可证附录B中描述的通知。

附录 A - 源代码形式许可声明

该源代码形式遵守 Mozilla 公共许可协议2.0的条款。如果该源代码文件中没有随附MPL的副本,您可以在以下地址获取:http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/。

如果未能将声明存放于一个特定文件,您则必须将声明包括在某个文件位置(如在许可文件相关目录中),接收者很可能在这样的位置查找此类声明。

您可以增加有关版权所有权情况的准确描述。

附录 B - “不兼容二级许可证”的声明

按 Mozilla 公共许可协议2.0所定义,该源代码形式 “不兼容二级许可证” 。

MPL与GPL有较大的相似性,但MPL容许对可执行版本加入额外限制,只要不限制取得和使用源代码的权利。另外,聚合软件也可以用GPL、LGPL或AGPL发布。

Mozilla Public License Version 2.0
==================================

1. Definitions
--------------

1.1. "Contributor"
    means each individual or legal entity that creates, contributes to
    the creation of, or owns Covered Software.

1.2. "Contributor Version"
    means the combination of the Contributions of others (if any) used
    by a Contributor and that particular Contributor's Contribution.

1.3. "Contribution"
    means Covered Software of a particular Contributor.

1.4. "Covered Software"
    means Source Code Form to which the initial Contributor has attached
    the notice in Exhibit A, the Executable Form of such Source Code
    Form, and Modifications of such Source Code Form, in each case
    including portions thereof.

1.5. "Incompatible With Secondary Licenses"
    means

    (a) that the initial Contributor has attached the notice described
        in Exhibit B to the Covered Software; or

    (b) that the Covered Software was made available under the terms of
        version 1.1 or earlier of the License, but not also under the
        terms of a Secondary License.

1.6. "Executable Form"
    means any form of the work other than Source Code Form.

1.7. "Larger Work"
    means a work that combines Covered Software with other material, in 
    a separate file or files, that is not Covered Software.

1.8. "License"
    means this document.

1.9. "Licensable"
    means having the right to grant, to the maximum extent possible,
    whether at the time of the initial grant or subsequently, any and
    all of the rights conveyed by this License.

1.10. "Modifications"
    means any of the following:

    (a) any file in Source Code Form that results from an addition to,
        deletion from, or modification of the contents of Covered
        Software; or

    (b) any new file in Source Code Form that contains any Covered
        Software.

1.11. "Patent Claims" of a Contributor
    means any patent claim(s), including without limitation, method,
    process, and apparatus claims, in any patent Licensable by such
    Contributor that would be infringed, but for the grant of the
    License, by the making, using, selling, offering for sale, having
    made, import, or transfer of either its Contributions or its
    Contributor Version.

1.12. "Secondary License"
    means either the GNU General Public License, Version 2.0, the GNU
    Lesser General Public License, Version 2.1, the GNU Affero General
    Public License, Version 3.0, or any later versions of those
    licenses.

1.13. "Source Code Form"
    means the form of the work preferred for making modifications.

1.14. "You" (or "Your")
    means an individual or a legal entity exercising rights under this
    License. For legal entities, "You" includes any entity that
    controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with You. For
    purposes of this definition, "control" means (a) the power, direct
    or indirect, to cause the direction or management of such entity,
    whether by contract or otherwise, or (b) ownership of more than
    fifty percent (50%) of the outstanding shares or beneficial
    ownership of such entity.

2. License Grants and Conditions
--------------------------------

2.1. Grants

Each Contributor hereby grants You a world-wide, royalty-free,
non-exclusive license:

(a) under intellectual property rights (other than patent or trademark)
    Licensable by such Contributor to use, reproduce, make available,
    modify, display, perform, distribute, and otherwise exploit its
    Contributions, either on an unmodified basis, with Modifications, or
    as part of a Larger Work; and

(b) under Patent Claims of such Contributor to make, use, sell, offer
    for sale, have made, import, and otherwise transfer either its
    Contributions or its Contributor Version.

2.2. Effective Date

The licenses granted in Section 2.1 with respect to any Contribution
become effective for each Contribution on the date the Contributor first
distributes such Contribution.

2.3. Limitations on Grant Scope

The licenses granted in this Section 2 are the only rights granted under
this License. No additional rights or licenses will be implied from the
distribution or licensing of Covered Software under this License.
Notwithstanding Section 2.1(b) above, no patent license is granted by a
Contributor:

(a) for any code that a Contributor has removed from Covered Software;
    or

(b) for infringements caused by: (i) Your and any other third party's
    modifications of Covered Software, or (ii) the combination of its
    Contributions with other software (except as part of its Contributor
    Version); or

(c) under Patent Claims infringed by Covered Software in the absence of
    its Contributions.

This License does not grant any rights in the trademarks, service marks,
or logos of any Contributor (except as may be necessary to comply with
the notice requirements in Section 3.4).

2.4. Subsequent Licenses

No Contributor makes additional grants as a result of Your choice to
distribute the Covered Software under a subsequent version of this
License (see Section 10.2) or under the terms of a Secondary License (if
permitted under the terms of Section 3.3).

2.5. Representation

Each Contributor represents that the Contributor believes its
Contributions are its original creation(s) or it has sufficient rights
to grant the rights to its Contributions conveyed by this License.

2.6. Fair Use

This License is not intended to limit any rights You have under
applicable copyright doctrines of fair use, fair dealing, or other
equivalents.

2.7. Conditions

Sections 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, and 3.4 are conditions of the licenses granted
in Section 2.1.

3. Responsibilities
-------------------

3.1. Distribution of Source Form

All distribution of Covered Software in Source Code Form, including any
Modifications that You create or to which You contribute, must be under
the terms of this License. You must inform recipients that the Source
Code Form of the Covered Software is governed by the terms of this
License, and how they can obtain a copy of this License. You may not
attempt to alter or restrict the recipients' rights in the Source Code
Form.

3.2. Distribution of Executable Form

If You distribute Covered Software in Executable Form then:

(a) such Covered Software must also be made available in Source Code
    Form, as described in Section 3.1, and You must inform recipients of
    the Executable Form how they can obtain a copy of such Source Code
    Form by reasonable means in a timely manner, at a charge no more
    than the cost of distribution to the recipient; and

(b) You may distribute such Executable Form under the terms of this
    License, or sublicense it under different terms, provided that the
    license for the Executable Form does not attempt to limit or alter
    the recipients' rights in the Source Code Form under this License.

3.3. Distribution of a Larger Work

You may create and distribute a Larger Work under terms of Your choice,
provided that You also comply with the requirements of this License for
the Covered Software. If the Larger Work is a combination of Covered
Software with a work governed by one or more Secondary Licenses, and the
Covered Software is not Incompatible With Secondary Licenses, this
License permits You to additionally distribute such Covered Software
under the terms of such Secondary License(s), so that the recipient of
the Larger Work may, at their option, further distribute the Covered
Software under the terms of either this License or such Secondary
License(s).

3.4. Notices

You may not remove or alter the substance of any license notices
(including copyright notices, patent notices, disclaimers of warranty,
or limitations of liability) contained within the Source Code Form of
the Covered Software, except that You may alter any license notices to
the extent required to remedy known factual inaccuracies.

3.5. Application of Additional Terms

You may choose to offer, and to charge a fee for, warranty, support,
indemnity or liability obligations to one or more recipients of Covered
Software. However, You may do so only on Your own behalf, and not on
behalf of any Contributor. You must make it absolutely clear that any
such warranty, support, indemnity, or liability obligation is offered by
You alone, and You hereby agree to indemnify every Contributor for any
liability incurred by such Contributor as a result of warranty, support,
indemnity or liability terms You offer. You may include additional
disclaimers of warranty and limitations of liability specific to any
jurisdiction.

4. Inability to Comply Due to Statute or Regulation
---------------------------------------------------

If it is impossible for You to comply with any of the terms of this
License with respect to some or all of the Covered Software due to
statute, judicial order, or regulation then You must: (a) comply with
the terms of this License to the maximum extent possible; and (b)
describe the limitations and the code they affect. Such description must
be placed in a text file included with all distributions of the Covered
Software under this License. Except to the extent prohibited by statute
or regulation, such description must be sufficiently detailed for a
recipient of ordinary skill to be able to understand it.

5. Termination
--------------

5.1. The rights granted under this License will terminate automatically
if You fail to comply with any of its terms. However, if You become
compliant, then the rights granted under this License from a particular
Contributor are reinstated (a) provisionally, unless and until such
Contributor explicitly and finally terminates Your grants, and (b) on an
ongoing basis, if such Contributor fails to notify You of the
non-compliance by some reasonable means prior to 60 days after You have
come back into compliance. Moreover, Your grants from a particular
Contributor are reinstated on an ongoing basis if such Contributor
notifies You of the non-compliance by some reasonable means, this is the
first time You have received notice of non-compliance with this License
from such Contributor, and You become compliant prior to 30 days after
Your receipt of the notice.

5.2. If You initiate litigation against any entity by asserting a patent
infringement claim (excluding declaratory judgment actions,
counter-claims, and cross-claims) alleging that a Contributor Version
directly or indirectly infringes any patent, then the rights granted to
You by any and all Contributors for the Covered Software under Section
2.1 of this License shall terminate.

5.3. In the event of termination under Sections 5.1 or 5.2 above, all
end user license agreements (excluding distributors and resellers) which
have been validly granted by You or Your distributors under this License
prior to termination shall survive termination.

************************************************************************
*                                                                      *
*  6. Disclaimer of Warranty                                           *
*  -------------------------                                           *
*                                                                      *
*  Covered Software is provided under this License on an "as is"       *
*  basis, without warranty of any kind, either expressed, implied, or  *
*  statutory, including, without limitation, warranties that the       *
*  Covered Software is free of defects, merchantable, fit for a        *
*  particular purpose or non-infringing. The entire risk as to the     *
*  quality and performance of the Covered Software is with You.        *
*  Should any Covered Software prove defective in any respect, You     *
*  (not any Contributor) assume the cost of any necessary servicing,   *
*  repair, or correction. This disclaimer of warranty constitutes an   *
*  essential part of this License. No use of any Covered Software is   *
*  authorized under this License except under this disclaimer.         *
*                                                                      *
************************************************************************

************************************************************************
*                                                                      *
*  7. Limitation of Liability                                          *
*  --------------------------                                          *
*                                                                      *
*  Under no circumstances and under no legal theory, whether tort      *
*  (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, shall any           *
*  Contributor, or anyone who distributes Covered Software as          *
*  permitted above, be liable to You for any direct, indirect,         *
*  special, incidental, or consequential damages of any character      *
*  including, without limitation, damages for lost profits, loss of    *
*  goodwill, work stoppage, computer failure or malfunction, or any    *
*  and all other commercial damages or losses, even if such party      *
*  shall have been informed of the possibility of such damages. This   *
*  limitation of liability shall not apply to liability for death or   *
*  personal injury resulting from such party's negligence to the       *
*  extent applicable law prohibits such limitation. Some               *
*  jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or limitation of           *
*  incidental or consequential damages, so this exclusion and          *
*  limitation may not apply to You.                                    *
*                                                                      *
************************************************************************

8. Litigation
-------------

Any litigation relating to this License may be brought only in the
courts of a jurisdiction where the defendant maintains its principal
place of business and such litigation shall be governed by laws of that
jurisdiction, without reference to its conflict-of-law provisions.
Nothing in this Section shall prevent a party's ability to bring
cross-claims or counter-claims.

9. Miscellaneous
----------------

This License represents the complete agreement concerning the subject
matter hereof. If any provision of this License is held to be
unenforceable, such provision shall be reformed only to the extent
necessary to make it enforceable. Any law or regulation which provides
that the language of a contract shall be construed against the drafter
shall not be used to construe this License against a Contributor.

10. Versions of the License
---------------------------

10.1. New Versions

Mozilla Foundation is the license steward. Except as provided in Section
10.3, no one other than the license steward has the right to modify or
publish new versions of this License. Each version will be given a
distinguishing version number.

10.2. Effect of New Versions

You may distribute the Covered Software under the terms of the version
of the License under which You originally received the Covered Software,
or under the terms of any subsequent version published by the license
steward.

10.3. Modified Versions

If you create software not governed by this License, and you want to
create a new license for such software, you may create and use a
modified version of this License if you rename the license and remove
any references to the name of the license steward (except to note that
such modified license differs from this License).

10.4. Distributing Source Code Form that is Incompatible With Secondary
Licenses

If You choose to distribute Source Code Form that is Incompatible With
Secondary Licenses under the terms of this version of the License, the
notice described in Exhibit B of this License must be attached.

Exhibit A - Source Code Form License Notice
-------------------------------------------

  This Source Code Form is subject to the terms of the Mozilla Public
  License, v. 2.0. If a copy of the MPL was not distributed with this
  file, You can obtain one at http://mozilla.org/MPL/2.0/.

If it is not possible or desirable to put the notice in a particular
file, then You may include the notice in a location (such as a LICENSE
file in a relevant directory) where a recipient would be likely to look
for such a notice.

You may add additional accurate notices of copyright ownership.

Exhibit B - "Incompatible With Secondary Licenses" Notice
---------------------------------------------------------

  This Source Code Form is "Incompatible With Secondary Licenses", as
  defined by the Mozilla Public License, v. 2.0.

公众领域

公众领域的软件是完全没有版权的软件,包括超过版权法保护期限的软件和原版权持有人明确放弃版权(例如用CC0声明)。对于公众领域软件,你几乎可以为所欲为。

总结

基本上所有自由软件许可证都要求保留所有相关版权声明和告示,并且可能造成的任何损失自负,通常也不授予商标使用权,往往还加入不能用作者名称宣传的条款。

  • Apache许可证、GPL和MPL明确授予必要的专利许可
  • Apache许可证和GPL要求修改版说明经过修改
  • GPL和MPL要求修改仍然遵循相同许可证,特别地需要开放源码
  • LGPL与GPL的主要区别在于前者容许调用非自由模块
  • MPL与GPL的主要区别在于MPL容许限制可执行版本的散布

更多许可证信息参见许可证列表

关键词 法律